Europeans of the 16th century so admire the comet. So one night, when a comet that was popularized by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe looked at the sky, Katharina Kepler wake his son, Johannes, who was six years old to see the comet. Over 20 years later, when Brahe died, who was sworn in to replace the Emperor Rudolf II Barahe position as imperial mathematician? At the age of 29 years, Johannes Kepler became the imperial mathematician to Holy Roman Emperor, along with the royal astrologer General Wallenstein, a position he held until his death. Kepler was also a professor of mathematics at the University of Graz. Kepler's career also coincided with the career of Galileo Galilei. Early in his career, Kepler was assistant to Tycho Brahe.
Kepler is greatly appreciated not only in mathematics. He became very famous in the field of optics and astronomy. Kepler, though small stature, has a dazzling intelligence and personality are also persistent. Discriminated against when he did not want to convert to Roman Catholicism, though under great pressure.
Background Men who Secrets of the Solar System
Johannes Kepler was born in 1571 in Weil der Stadt, a small town on the outskirts of the Black Forest of Germany. Although the family is poor, the scholarship of the nobles lokkal allow Johannes to get a good education. He studied theology at the University Tüũbingen, according to his intention to become a Lutheran clergyman. However, his genius in mathematics to be recognized. In 1594, when a math teacher at Lutheran High School in Graz, Austria, died, Kepler replaced. While there, he published his first major work, Cosmographic Mystery (Mystery Kosmografis).
Brahe astronomers have spent many years to record his observations about the planet by carefully and thoroughly. When he read Cosmographic Mystery, Brahe Kepler was impressed with the understanding of mathematics and astronomy, and he invited Kepler to join him in Benátky, near Prague, now in the Czech Republic. Kepler accepted the invitation when religious intolerance forced him to leave Graz. As already described above, when Brahe died, Kepler succeeded him. In place of a very careful observer, now the advisory board of the empire have a genius in mathematics.
Historical milestones in the Field of Optics
In order to fully benefit from the collection of observations about the planet Brahe, Kepler need more understanding about the refraction of light. How the reflection of light from a planet is refracted as it enters the atmosphere of the earth? Kepler's explanation contained in the Supplement to Witelo books, expounding the Optical Part of Astronomy (Supplements to Witelo, Elaborate Part of Astronomical Optics), which gives more details about the work Witelo, scientists of the Middle Ages. Kepler's book is a milestone in the field of optics. He was the first to explain the workings of the eye.
However, the main areas which are not optically Kepler wrestled, but astronomy. Early astronomers believe that the sky is empty sphere with sticking bintnag-star on the inside like a sparkling diamond. Ptolemaus regard the earth as the center of the universe, whereas Copernicus believed that the planets are all circling the sun does not move. Brahe estimated that the other planets revolve around the sun, which in turn orbits the earth. Because in contrast to Earth, all the other planets dalah heavenly objects, these objects are considered perfect. The only form of movement that is considered suitable for the planets is lingkarang perfect shape, each planet moves with constant velocity. In this climate of Kepler started his duties as imperial mathematician.
Early Modern Astronomy
Equipped with tables of planetary motion observations compiled by Brahe, Kepler studied the cosmic movement and draw conclusions based on what he saw. In addition to a genius in terms of numbers, he also has a strong determination and curiosity are endless. Exceptional ability to work is evidenced by the 7200 Completes his complex calculations when studying tables of observations of Mars.
And Mars was the one who first attracted the attention of Kepler. After carefully studying the tables it, expose bahawa Mars orbit the sun but not in a perfect circle. The only form of orbit which fits with the observation that the shape is elliptical (oval) with sun sebagaisalah one focal point. However, Kepler realized that the secret key to brush the sky is not Mars, but the planet Earth. According to Professor Max Caspar, "These findings motivate diauntuk Kepler tried the approach of genius". Tbael-table he uses it in a way that is unusual. Rather than use the tables to investigate Mars, Kepler imagined himself standing on Mars and see the Earth. He calculated the speed of movement of the earth varies inversely with the distance of the sun.
Now, Kepler understood that the sun is not just the center of the solar system. The sun also acts like a magnet, rotating on its axis and affect the motion of planets. Caspar wrote, "This is a concept totally new, since then guide him in his research and led to the discovery of its laws". For Kepler, the planets are physical objects with harmonious diaturoleh a diverse set of laws. What has he learned from the Mars and Earth would apply also to all the planets. Thus, he concludes that each planet orbits the sun in an elliptical orbit at a speed which varies according to distance from the sun.
"Kepler is recognized as one of the greatest scientists of all time-share figures are astronomical dragged out of the Middle Ages to the Modern Age"
Kepler's laws of motion Planet
In 1609, Kepler published the book New Astronomy (New Astronmi), which is recognized as the first modern astronomical books and one of the most important books ever written on the subject. This masterpiece contains Kepler's first two laws of planetary motion. The third legal book published in the Harmonies of the World (World Harmony) in 1619, when he lived in Linz, Austria. Three law defines the basics of planetary motion: the shape of the planet's orbit around the sun, speed of motion of the planets, and the relationship between the distance of a planet from the sun and the time required to complete one round.
What was the reaction of his fellow astronomers Kepler? They do not understand how important Kepler's laws. In fact there is no trust. Maybe they can not fully blame. Kepler has enveloped his work with an elusive Latin prose like a thick cloud layer that surrounds Venus is almost impenetrable. However, over time, the laws of Kepler finally recognized. Approximately 70 years later, Isaac Newton used Kepler's work on the legal basis for the movement and gravity. Today, Kepler recognized as one of the greatest scientists of all time-share figures are astronomical dragged out of the Middle Ages to modern times.
"Religious intolerance is sickening to Kepler, who believed that the harmony of the planets should be found also among human beings"
Overcome the European Wars of Religion
In the same month as the third Kepler to formulate his law, the Thirty Years' War erupted. During that period (1614-48), Europe devastated by the killing and looting religious background and Germany lost a third of the population. Witch hunt spread everywhere. Kepler's mother was accused of being witches and nearly executed. According to the report, before the war it wages Kepler in the palace sometimes paid sometimes not, and in time of war he did not receive a salary.
Throughout his life, Kepler was a Lutheran religious persecution and prejudice. He was forced out of Graz, which means losing everything and having difficulty, because he refused to embrace Roman Catholicism. In Benátky, he once again persuaded to change his religion. However, Kepler refused to worship the statue and saint; according to the practice of this kind is the work of Satan. In Linz, disagreements with his colleagues from the Lutheran bahawa believe God is everywhere making it excluded them from the Lord's Supper. Religious intolerance is sickening to Kepler, who believed that the harmony of the planets should be found also among human beings. He stick to his beliefs and willing to suffer. "Suffering with lots of brothers for the sake of religion and for the glory of Christ to persevere in danger and disgrace, must leave their homes, fields, friends, and one's hometown, had never occurred to me that this could be such a satisfying experience," writes Kepler. - Johannes Kepler, by Ernst Zinner.
In 1627, he published a book Rudolphine Tables (Tables Rudolphine), which he regarded as its main work in the field of astronomy. Unlike previous books, this book is given a thumbs-up everywhere, and soon became a must for astronomers and navigators. Finally, in November 1630, Kepler died in Regensburg, Germany. One of his colleagues incessantly Kepler Kepler admire that he has "a very solid knowledge base and knowledge that is so rich about the most elusive secrets". A proper respect is given to men who uncover the secrets of the solar system.